• Abnormal Pap Smears

    Abnormal Pap Smears What is a Colposcopy? Coloposcopy is a diagnostic tool to determine the cause of abnormalities found in Pap smears. A Colposcopy is a visual examination of the cervix; it's a relatively simple and painless procedure, usually performed in your physician's office and lasting approximately 10- 15 minutes. A Colposcopy seems much like a Pap smear; however, there a few important differences. You are positioned on the examination table as in a Pap Read More
  • After a Miscarriage

    After a Miscarriage: Getting Pregnant Again After a miscarriage, making the decision to try for another pregnancy can be difficult. It is natural to want to become pregnant again right away after going through the heartache of losing a baby. However, you should wait to attempt again until you are physically, as well as emotionally ready. When can I attempt another pregnancy? There is no perfect amount of time to wait before trying to conceive Read More
  • Assisted Delivery

    Assisted Delivery Near the end of the pushing stage, it may be apparent that mother and baby need a little extra help for a successful delivery. After ensuring anesthesia is working, your health care provider will gently apply forceps or minimal suction to the baby's head. As you push through the next contractions, your health care provider will gently bring the baby's head through the birth canal. What are the instruments used in an assisted Read More
  • Cancer

    What are Gynecologic Cancers? Gynecologic cancers strike the organs of the female reproductive system, including the ovaries, cervix, uterus, placenta, fallopian tubes, vagina and vulva. While there may be signs or symptoms, often there are not.In the States, 82,000 women are diagnosed with gynecologic cancer each year. It's the fourth most common type of cancer in women and affects approximately 1 in 20 women. Cervical Cancer Endometrial and Uterine Cancer Fallopian Tube Cancer Gestational Trophoblastic Read More
  • Complication during Preganancy

    Complication during preganancy 1. Bacterial Vaginosis during Pregnancy Approximately 10% - 30% of pregnant women will experience Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) during their pregnancy. Bacterial Vaginosis is caused by an imbalance in the normal bacteria that exists in a woman’s vagina. It is not transmitted sexually, but is associated with having vaginal intercourse. You may or may not experience symptoms. How do I know if I have Bacterial Vaginosis? One of the symptoms of BV is a Read More
  • Cyst

    What is Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)? PCOS is a health problem that can affect a woman’s menstrual cycle, fertility, hormones, insulin production, heart, blood vessels, and appearance. Women with PCOS have these characteristics: high levels of male hormones, also called androgens an irregular or no menstrual cycle may or may not have many small cysts in their ovaries. Cysts are fluid-filled sacs. PCOS is the most common hormonal reproductive problem in women of childbearing age. Read More
  • D&C Procedure after a Miscarriage

    Apa itu prosedur D&C? D&C, kependekan dari Dilation and Curettage (Dilatasi dan Kuretase), adalah prosedur bedah yang biasanya dilakukan ketika keguguran terjadi pada usia kandungan lebih dari tiga bulan. Dilation (dilatasi) berarti membuka leher rahim, dan Curettage (kuretase) berarti pengangkatan isi rahim. Kuretase dapat dilakukan dengan mengikis dinding rahim menggunakan kuret atau kurates hisap. Apakah D&C penting setelah keguguran? Sekitar 50% wanita yang mengalami keguguran tidak melakukan prosedur D&C. Wanita dapat keguguran dengan risiko yang Read More
  • Ectopic Pregnancy

    Ectopic Pregnancy What causes an ectopic pregnancy? Ectopic pregnancies are caused by one or more of the following: An infection or inflammation of the fallopian tube can cause it to become partially or entirely blocked. Scar tissue left behind from a previous infection or an operation on the tube may also impede the egg's movement. Previous surgery in the pelvic area or on the tubes can cause adhesions. An abnormality in the tube's shape can Read More
  • Endometriosis

    Endometriosis What are the symptoms of endometriosis? Pain is one of the most common symptoms of endometriosis. Usually the pain is in the abdomen, lower back, and pelvis. The amount of pain a woman feels does not depend on how much endometriosis she has. Some women have no pain, even though their disease affects large areas. Other women with endometriosis have severe pain even though they have only a few small growths. Symptoms of endometriosis Read More
  • Female Infertility

    Apa yang menyebabkan wanita mengalami infertilitas? Hal ini biasanya terjadi ketika ada masalah pada ovulasi, kelainan pada tuba fallopi / rahim, atau ada masalah pada serviks (leher rahim). Usia juga dapat mempengaruhi kesuburan pada wanita, semakin tua usianya, semakin rendah kesuburannya. Masalah pada ovulasi dapat disebabkan oleh hal-hal berikut : Ketidakseimbangan hormon Tumor atau kista Gangguan pola makan seperti anorexia atau bulimia Penggunaan alkohol atau obat-obatan terlarang Masalah pada kelenjar tiroid Kelebihan berat badan Stres Olahraga intensif Read More
  • Fibroids

    What is Fibroids Fibroids are classified by their location (see figure), which effects the symptoms they may cause and how they can be treated. Fibroids that are inside the cavity of the uterus (intracavitary myomas) will usually cause bleeding between periods (metrorrhagia) and often cause severe cramping. Fortunately, these fibroids can usually be easily removed by a method called "hysteroscopic resection," which can be done through the cervix without the need for an incision. Submucous Read More
  • Hysteroscopic

    Hysteroscopic How is Diagnostic Hysteroscopy done? Unless a woman has major medical problems, we attach a video camera to the hysteroscopy, so our patient can also see, and then insert the hysteroscopy into the uterus under direct vision while using either saline to fill the uterus. We then can look for fibroids, polyps, and other problems that may be causing bleeding. This often takes about a minute or two. The hysteroscope is removed. A small Read More
  • Infertility

    IVF - Unexplained Infertility - What is Infertilty ? - IUI - Weight and Fertility FEMALE INFERTILITY Infertility is a condition that affects approximately one out of every six couples. An infertility diagnosis is given to a couple who is unsuccessful with their attempts to get pregnant over the course of one year. When the problem exists within the female partner, it is referred to as female infertility. Female infertility factors contribute to approximately 50% of all infertility cases, and Read More
  • Intrauterine Insemination: IUI

    IVF - Unexplained Infertility - What is Infertilty ? - IUI - Weight and Fertility Intrauterine Insemination: IUI Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is a procedure which involves placing sperm inside a woman’s uterus to facilitate fertilization. This fertility treatment does not involve the manipulation of a woman’s eggs, and therefore is not considered an assisted reproductive technology (ART) procedure. What is IUI? IUI is a fertility treatment that uses a catheter to place a number of washed sperm directly into the Read More
  • Laparoscopy

    Laparoscopy What is laparoscopy used for in women ? This procedure allows us to determine whether there are any defects such as scar tissue, endometriosis, fibroid tumors and other abnormalities of the uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries. If any defects are found then we can often be corrected with operative laparoscopy which involves placing instruments through ports in the scope and through additional, narrow (5 mm) ports which are usually inserted at the top of the Read More
  • Male Factor Infertility

    Infertilitas adalah kondisi yang terjadi pada satu dari enam pasangan. Diagnosis pada infertilitas diberikan kepada pasangan yang belum berhasil dalam upanyanya untuk mengandung dalam kurun waktu satu tahun. Ketika masalah ini terjadi dari pihak pria, hal ini disebut dengan infertilitas pada pria. Kasus ini terjadi setiap satu dari dua kasus infertilitas pada pasangan, atau dapat dikatakan bahwa pihak pria terlibat pada 50% dari kasus infertilitas. Apa yang menyebabkan infertilitas pada pria? Infertilitas pada pria biasanya Read More
  • Maternity Gymnastics

    Maternity Gymnastics What are the benefits of Maternity Gymnastics? Pregnant women who perform Maternity Gymnastics often find they have an easier birth. Strengthening these muscles during pregnancy can help you develop the ability to control your muscles during labor and delivery. Toning all of these muscles will also minimize two common problems during pregnancy: bladder leaks and hemorrhoids. Maternity Gymnastics are also recommended after pregnancy to promote perineal healing, regain bladder control, and strengthen pelvic Read More
  • Menopause

    What is menopause? Menopause is the permanent end of a woman's monthly period. A woman has reached menopause when she has ceased having periods for one year. In North America, women usually go through menopause between the ages of 45 and 55. When menopause occurs before age 40, it is considered premature. As menopause nears in a healthy woman, the ovaries begin to gradually reduce the amount of estrogen, progesterone and androgens they produce. Estrogen Read More
  • Miscarriage

    Miscarriage Why do miscarriages occur? The reason for miscarriage is varied and most often, the cause can not be identified. During the first trimester, the most common cause of miscarriage is chromosomal abnormality-meaning that something is not correct with the baby's chromosomes. Most chromosomal abnormalities are the cause of a faulty egg or sperm cell or due to a problem at the time that the zygote went through the division process. Other causes for miscarriage Read More
  • Molar Pregnancy

    Molar Pregnancy What is a complete molar pregnancy? Complete molar pregnancies have only placental parts (there is no baby), and form when the sperm fertilizes an empty egg. Because the egg is empty, no baby is formed. The placenta grows and produces the pregnancy hormone, hCG. Unfortunately, an ultrasound will show that there is no fetus, only a placenta. What is a partial molar pregnancy? Partial Mole occurs when the mass contains both the abnormal Read More
  • Myoma Surgery

    OPERASI MYOMA What is a laparoscopic myomectomy? Fibroids that are attached to the outside of the uterus by a stalk (pedunculated myomas) are the easiest to remove laparoscopically. Many subserous myomas (close to the outer surface) can also be removed through the laparoscope. Fibroids that are deep in the wall of the uterus, or submucous are most difficult to remove laparoscopically. Although there have been successful pregnancies after laparoscopic removal of deep or multiple myomas, Read More
  • Obstetrics

    FIRST TRIMESTER PREGNANCY Definition: The first trimester of pregnancy begins when a fertilized egg implants into a woman's uterus. This occurs about 7 days after the egg is fertilized. The first trimester ends when the fetus is about 12 weeks old. (This is about 14 weeks from the first day of the last normal menstrual period.) Alternative Names: Early pregnancy; Pregnant - first trimester Causes, incidence, and risk factors: Pregnancy is a normal condition and, in Read More
  • Ovarian Cysts

    Ovarian Cysts What are the symptoms of ovarian cysts? Many women have ovarian cysts without having any symptoms. Sometimes, though, a cyst will cause these problems: pressure, fullness, or pain in the abdomen dull ache in the lower back and thighs problems passing urine completely pain during sexual intercourse weight gain painful menstrual periods and abnormal bleeding nausea or vomiting breast tenderness If you have these symptoms, get help right away: pain with fever and Read More
  • Physical Care After a Cesarean

    Physical Care After a Cesarean The days following the birth of your baby, which is called the postpartum period, is one of the most challenging times for moms and families. This time can be even more challenging for a mom who has undergone a cesarean delivery. After all deliveries, mom needs to take time to allow her body to rest and heal, which means no housework or running after other little ones. The maternal mortality Read More
  • Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)

    Lima sampai sepuluh persen wanita yang berusia 12-51 tahun mengalami PCOS. Apa penyebab PCOS? Penyebab pasti dari PCOS belum diketahui sampai saat ini. Wanita yang menderita PCOS sering kali memiliki ibu atau saudara yang juga menderita PCOS. Namun belum ada bukti yang kuat untuk mengatakan adanya pengaruh keturunan genetik pada penyakit ini. Sebagian besar dari wanita dengan PCOS, memiliki masalah pada berat badan. Para peneliti mencari hubungan antara PCOS dan produksi insulin pada tubuh. Insulin Read More
  • Smoking Tobacco and Fertility and Infertility

    There are many known causes of infertility. Some are more absolute than others. For example, if a woman has blocked fallopian tubes, or a man has a very low sperm count or motility, then we know the cause of the couples infertility problem (or at least one of the causes). However, there are other fertility issues that are difficult to characterize as "the problem" - but we know that often they are at least factors contributing Read More
  • Stages of Childbirth

    Stages of Childbirth: STAGE I : Going through the birth of your child is a wonderful and unique experience. No two deliveries are alike and there is no way to tell how your delivery is going to be. What we can tell you is the stages you will go through during this process and what you can generally expect. Childbirth can be broken into three stages: First stage: Begins from the onset of true labor and Read More
  • Ultrasound Scan

    Why and when is Ultrasound used in Pregnancy? Ultrasound scan is currently considered to be a safe, non-invasive, accurate and cost-effective investigation in the fetus. It has progressively become an indispensible obstetric tool and plays an important role in the care of every pregnant woman. The main use of ultrasonography are in the following areas: 1. Diagnosis and confirmation of early pregnancy. The gestational sac can be visualized as early as four and a half Read More
  • Unexplained Infertility

    IVF - Unexplained Infertility - What is Infertilty ? - IUI - Weight and Fertility Unexplained Infertility Unexplained infertility simply means we do not know why the couple is infertile - it is a confession of medical ignorance. Patients with unexplained infertility fall into two groups. One is the group who really have no infertility problem whatsoever, but are just plain "unlucky". The other is the group which do have a reason for their infertility - but the reason is so subtle, Read More
  • Urogynecology

    What are Urogynecologic Disorders? Lily Arya, MD, MS: Sacral nerve stimulation is a minimally invasive outpatient procedure for the treatment of urge incontinence and urinary frequency. It is performed in two parts. Part one involves testing to see if patient is eligible for the procedure. It is performed under local anesthesia. Two weeks later, if the patient is eligible, the placement of the pulse generator is done under sedation and local anesthesia. Studies show that Read More
  • Weight and Fertility

    IVF - Unexplained Infertility - What is Infertilty ? - IUI - Weight and Fertility Weight and Fertility Body mass index and its effect on in vitro fertilization pregnancy rates Background A woman's weight can affect her fertility. We know that at both extremes, very thin and obese, that there can be disruption of the normal process of regular, consistent ovulation. Anovulation can often result. Medications can be used to induce ovulation in these women in an attempt to become Read More
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This is a service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine and the National Institute of Health. The most relevant information about cysts.

The article on ovarian cysts in the resource is quite comprehensive.

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